What is the impact of consuming walnuts on the dietary intake of total polyphenols?

What’s the affect of consuming walnuts on the dietary consumption of complete polyphenols?

In a current examine revealed in Vitamins, researchers carried out secondary analyses of the Walnuts and Wholesome Ageing examine (WAHA) information, a two-year potential, randomized managed trial (RCT) carried out among the many 63 to 79-year-olds of Loma Linda College (LLU) in California, United States of America (USA) and Barcelona in Spain, between 2014 and 2016.

Research: Impact of Walnut Supplementation on Dietary Polyphenol Consumption and Urinary Polyphenol Excretion within the Walnuts and Wholesome Ageing Research. Picture Credit score: Krasula/Shutterstock

The dad or mum examine examined the impact of each day dietary walnut supplementation of 30 to 60 grams/day on the getting old outcomes in comparison with a walnut-free customary weight loss plan. Nevertheless, within the current secondary information analyses, researchers used information from LLU members solely. They examined the consequences of dietary supplementation with walnuts at 15% of power, i.e., the consumption of 30 to 60 grams of walnuts daily.


Dietary polyphenols are wonderful antioxidants and anti inflammatory phytochemicals that supply a number of well being advantages. As an example, they improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) within the blood (or plasma) lipids, modify irritation and endothelial dysfunctions, and improve antioxidant defenses, thus, decreasing the chance of cardiovascular ailments (CVDs).

Among the many nuts, walnuts include the best concentrations of polyphenols and have a positive nutrient and fatty acid profile. Chromatography and mass spectrometry have recognized that the majority polyphenols reside within the seed coat or pellicle of the edible walnut kernel, averaging 2,500 gallic acid equal (GAE) per 100 grams. Walnuts improve the focus of plasma polyphenols inside half-hour of ingestion.

Concerning the examine

Within the current examine, researchers first carried out nutrient evaluation utilizing the Diet Information System for Analysis, for which skilled analysis dietitians obtained 24-hour dietary recall information by way of telephonic conversations or face-to-face interviews from all eligible members. Subsequent, they carried out these interviews over two years at various intervals to seize seasonal differences of meals consumption whereby they famous information on the meals, drinks, and dietary dietary supplements consumed by these people up to now 24 hours.

Additional, the group used the Phenol-Explorer database to estimate the polyphenol content material of consumed meals and drinks from 24-hour dietary recall information. The fast Folin–Ciocalteu (F–C) and chromatographic strategies helped them estimate cumulative polyphenol content material and polyphenol subclasses, respectively.

Polyphenol subclasses comprised phenolics; flavonoids consisted of flavonols, flavones, and anthocyanins; moreover, there have been the subclass lignans. The group entered how consumed meals contributed to all subclasses into the dietary database to match meals composition information and compute the consumption of mixture dietary polyphenols and phenol subclasses.

Moreover, the group used spot urine samples of the WAHA members to estimate the mixture urinary polyphenol concentrations in mg GAE/L. Within the second yr of the examine, they adjusted for urine dilution attributable to creatinine focus.


From 356 LLU members, the current secondary analyses used solely 300 topics. Each walnut-consuming and management teams had extra ladies members. In 1242 periods, analysis dieticians collected 5 24-h dietary remembers from most members.

They famous that the walnut group had larger complete fats, power, and dietary fiber consumption than the management group over the two-year examine interval. Accordingly, the mixture polyphenol consumption within the walnut group (attributable to imply walnut consumption) was larger than the management group (632 vs. 40 mg/d). Walnut consumption additionally markedly contributed to extra mixture polyphenols, flavanols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids however not lignans. Thus, each examine teams had comparable lignan consumption.

In comparison with the baseline, the polyphenols urinary excretion within the walnut group approached statistical significance solely within the first yr (p-value 0.066). Nevertheless, within the management group, the values remained comparable in any respect time factors, indicating no important inter-group variations all through the two-year examine length.

The analyses of spot urine samples didn’t present any correlation between dietary polyphenol consumption (by way of walnuts) and urinary polyphenol concentrations however an inverse correlation with flavonoid consumption. The estimation technique (the F-C assay) or the quick half-life of bioavailable polyphenols and their metabolites may have precipitated this.

Round 5 to 10% of the entire dietary polyphenols attain the small gut and are absorbed there attributable to their structural complexity and solubility. Because the intestine additionally absorbs and eliminates some polyphenols, it explains their lowered urinary excretion.

Walnuts are wealthy in ellagitannins which hydrolyzes to ellagic acid, upon which the intestine microbiota acts to provide urolithins. These are excreted primarily by way of urine and will function invaluable biomarkers of walnut consumption. But, future research ought to make the most of 24-h urine assortment following the walnut consumption to seize most polyphenols within the urine samples.


The examine evaluation confirmed {that a} single meals, i.e., walnuts, elevated the entire dietary polyphenols and their subclasses (besides lignans) in wholesome older adults. These people additionally confirmed larger power, complete fats, fiber, and unsaturated fatty acid consumption. Thus, together with nuts, comparable to walnuts, in each day weight loss plan may have important well being advantages. Nuts defend from age-related power diseases, like CVDs and neurological issues. Since in addition they have excessive quantities of polyphenols, they may synergistically cut back the illness threat.

Written by

Neha Mathur

Neha is a digital advertising and marketing skilled based mostly in Gurugram, India. She has a Grasp’s diploma from the College of Rajasthan with a specialization in Biotechnology in 2008. She has expertise in pre-clinical analysis as a part of her analysis undertaking in The Division of Toxicology on the prestigious Central Drug Analysis Institute (CDRI), Lucknow, India. She additionally holds a certification in C++ programming.


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